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2017

List of deaths from drug overdose and intoxication

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Gambling movies intravenous 2017

Postby Shaktiktilar В» 28.12.2018

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All rights reserved. Patrick Perotti scoffed when his mother told him about a doctor who uses electromagnetic waves to treat drug addiction. Perotti, who is 38 and lives in Genoa, Italy, began snorting cocaine at 17, a rich kid who loved to party. His indulgence gradually turned into a daily habit and then an all-consuming compulsion.

He fell in love, had a son, and opened a restaurant. Under the weight of his addiction, his family and business eventually collapsed. He did a three-month stint in rehab and relapsed 36 hours after he left. He spent eight months in another program, but the day he returned home, he saw his dealer and got high. I could not see any way to stop. When his mother pressed him to call the doctor, Perotti gave in. It worked.

Psychiatrist Luigi Gallimberti has used transcranial magnetic stimulation on other patients with similar success. He and his colleagues are planning a large-scale trial. The technique is now being tested for other types of addiction by researchers around the world.

Gallimberti, a gray-haired, bespectacled psychiatrist and toxicologist who has treated addiction for 30 years, runs a clinic in Padua. His decision to try the technique, called transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS , stemmed from dramatic advances in the science of addiction—and from his frustration with traditional treatments. More than , people worldwide die every year from drug overdoses and drug-related illnesses, such as HIV, according to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, and far more die from smoking and drinking.

More than a billion people smoke, and tobacco is implicated in the top five causes of death: heart disease, stroke, respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. Nearly one of every 20 adults worldwide is addicted to alcohol.

No one has yet counted people hooked on gambling and other compulsive activities gaining recognition as addictions. Addiction affects tens of millions of people across the planet. But where does it come from? In the United States an epidemic of opioid addiction continues to get worse. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported a record 33, overdose deaths in from opioids, including prescription painkillers and heroin—16 percent more than the previous record, set just the year before.

In response to the crisis, the first ever U. It concluded that 21 million Americans have a drug or alcohol addiction, making the disorder more common than cancer.

After spending decades probing the brains of drug-loving lab animals and scanning the brains of human volunteers, scientists have developed a detailed picture of how addiction disrupts pathways and processes that underlie desire, habit formation, pleasure, learning, emotional regulation, and cognition. Addiction causes hundreds of changes in brain anatomy, chemistry, and cell-to-cell signaling, including in the gaps between neurons called synapses, which are the molecular machinery for learning.

This rat, in a simulation of a slot machine, is lured by the same types of flashing lights and throbbing sounds that keep humans playing in casinos. With a choice of openings that pay off in sugar pellets, the rat will consistently poke at the one with the biggest payoff but the smallest chance of winning.

Using similar studies, Catharine Winstanley, a neuroscientist at the University of British Columbia, has discovered that a medication that blocks a dopamine receptor can reduce risky decision-making linked to compulsive gambling. They had measured electrical activity in neurons in cocaine-seeking rats and discovered that a region of the brain involved in inhibiting behavior was abnormally quiet. Using optogenetics, which combines fiber optics and genetic engineering to manipulate animal brains with once unimaginable speed and precision, the researchers activated these listless cells in the rats.

Gallimberti thought TMS might offer a practical way to do that. Our brains run on electrical impulses that zip among neurons with every thought and movement. Brain stimulation, which has been used for years to treat depression and migraines, taps that circuitry. The device is nothing but a coiled wire inside a wand.

When electric current runs through it, the wand creates a magnetic pulse that alters electrical activity in the brain. Gallimberti thought repeated pulses might activate drug-damaged neural pathways, like a reboot on a frozen computer.

He and his partner, neurocognitive psychologist Alberto Terraneo, teamed up with Bonci to test the technique. They recruited a group of cocaine addicts: Sixteen underwent one month of brain stimulation while 13 received standard care, including medication for anxiety and depression. By the end of the trial, 11 people in the stimulation group, but only three in the other group, were drug free. The investigators published their findings in the January issue of the journal European Neuropsychopharmacology.

That prompted a flurry of publicity, which drew hundreds of cocaine users to the clinic. Perotti came in edgy and agitated. After his first session, he says, he felt calm. Soon he lost the desire for cocaine. It was still gone six months later. It will take large, placebo-controlled trials to prove that the treatment works and the benefits last.

The team plans to conduct further studies, and researchers around the world are testing brain stimulation to help people stop smoking, drinking, gambling, binge eating, and misusing opioids.

In Seoul, e-stadiums and gaming parlors charge about a dollar an hour, and some venues are open around the clock. Soon after South Korea made super-high-speed Internet cheap and widely available, it became clear that some people were ruining their lives through obsessive game playing. The government now pays for treatment.

But advances in neuroscience have upended conventional notions about addiction—what it is, what can trigger it, and why quitting is so tough. That explained alcohol, nicotine, and heroin reasonably well. Why do people long for the burn of whiskey in the throat or the warm bliss of heroin after the body is no longer physically dependent? This view has led many scientists to accept the once heretical idea that addiction is possible without drugs.

The most recent revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the handbook of American psychiatry, for the first time recognizes a behavioral addiction: gambling. For years Childress and other scientists have tried to unravel the mysteries of addiction by studying the reward system.

Through complex algorithms and color-coding, brain scans are converted into images that pinpoint the circuits that kick into high gear when the brain lusts. Childress, who has flaming red hair and a big laugh, sits at her computer, scrolling through a picture gallery of brains—gray ovals with bursts of color as vivid as a Disney movie. All we see is spots that the computer turns into fuchsia and purple and green. But what are they trying to tell us? It operates in the realm of instinct and reflex, built for when survival depended on the ability to obtain food and sex before the competition got to them.

Craving is driven by the neurotransmitter dopamine. Desire is triggered when dopamine, which originates near the top of the brain stem, travels through neural pathways to act on the brain. Drugs increase the flow of dopamine. Desire depends on a complex cascade of brain actions, but scientists believe that the trigger for this is likely to be a spike in the neurotransmitter dopamine. A chemical messenger that carries signals across synapses, dopamine plays wide-ranging roles in the brain.

Most relevant to addiction, the flow of dopamine heightens what scientists call salience, or the motivational pull of a stimulus—cocaine, for instance, or reminders of it, such as a glimpse of white powder. How powerfully? The disease destroys dopamine-producing cells, primarily affecting movement.

Through learning, the signals or reminder cues for rewards come to provoke surges of dopamine. In a study published in PLoS One she scanned the brains of 22 recovering cocaine addicts while photos of crack pipes and other drug paraphernalia flashed before their eyes for 33 milliseconds, one-tenth the time it takes to blink.

By the time they became conscious of it, it was like a snowball rolling downhill. The brain, of course, is more than an organ of reward. Why do craving and habits overpower reason, good intentions, and awareness of the toll of addiction? Goldstein and her team are testing whether neurofeedback, which allows people to observe their brains in action, can help addicts take more control over compulsive habits.

Changes in this part of the brain affect judgment, self-control, and other cognitive functions tied to addiction. People with addiction often persist in using drugs to relieve the misery they feel when they stop. At Marshak Clinic, a drug-treatment center near Moscow, a six-month dose of Antabuse is implanted under the skin of a recovering alcoholic about to be discharged after a day stay.

The medication will cause him to vomit if he drinks, a form of aversion therapy. The clinic also relies heavily on other strategies to try to break the addiction, including yoga, individual and group counseling sessions, amino acid supplements, dietary changes, and antidepressants.

In , working with Nora Volkow, now the director of NIDA, Goldstein published what has become an influential model of addiction, called iRISA, or impaired response inhibition and salience attribution. As drug cues gain prominence, the field of attention narrows, like a camera zooming in on one object and pushing everything else out of view.

They generally perform worse, but not always. It depends on the context. For example, on a standard task that measures fluency—how many farm animals can you name in a minute? But when Goldstein asks them to list words related to drugs, they tend to outperform everyone else. Chronic drug users are often great at planning and executing tasks that involve using drugs, but this bias may compromise other cognitive processes, including knowing how and when to stop.

A study tracked 19 cocaine addicts who had abstained or severely cut back for six months. They showed significant increases in gray matter volume in two regions involved in inhibiting behavior and evaluating rewards. Marc Potenza strides through the cavernous Venetian casino in Las Vegas. Electronic games—slot machines, roulette, blackjack, poker—beep and clang and trill. Out of the pleasure palazzo, he heads down an escalator and through a long concourse to a sedate meeting room in the Sands Expo Convention Center, where he will present his research on gambling addiction to about a hundred scientists and clinicians.

The meeting is organized by the National Center for Responsible Gaming, an industry-supported group that has funded gambling research by Potenza and others. Potenza stands at the podium, talking about white matter integrity and cortical blood flow in gamblers. Just beyond the room, expo exhibitors are setting up displays touting innovations engineered to get dopamine flowing in millennials. E-sports betting.

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Re: gambling movies intravenous 2017

Postby Malashakar В» 28.12.2018

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Re: gambling movies intravenous 2017

Postby Mozuru В» 28.12.2018

This is her first article for National Geographic. Other developmental events could have different effects. Desire is triggered when dopamine, which originates near the top of the brain stem, travels through neural pathways to act on the brain.

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Re: gambling movies intravenous 2017

Postby Mugar В» 28.12.2018

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Postby Taukora В» 28.12.2018

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Postby Gokus В» 28.12.2018

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Re: gambling movies intravenous 2017

Postby Zoloshicage В» 28.12.2018

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Postby Grozragore В» 28.12.2018

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Postby Arashirisar В» 28.12.2018

Prediction of alcohol drinking in adolescents: Personality-traits, behavior, brain responses, and genetic variations in the context of reward sensitivity. Jill B. Potenza stands at the podium, talking about white matter integrity and cortical blood flow in gamblers. The funerals had a peculiar aspect. We get the facts from a drug expert.

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Postby Fenritaur В» 28.12.2018

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Postby Arashizil В» 28.12.2018

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Postby Daigal В» 28.12.2018

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