Distinguishing between gaming and gambling activities in addiction research

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The Millennial Problem: Why We (Don’t) Gamble

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Gambling addiction passive games

Postby Yozshuhn В» 20.06.2019

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Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as sharing many common features at a structural and aesthetic level. Both have also been implicated as contributing to harm through excessive involvement. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to the fundamental characteristics that differentiate these two classes of activity, especially in situations where the boundaries between them may be particularly hard to distinguish. This is evident, for example, in digital games that incorporate free and paid virtual currencies or items, as well as the capacity for wagering.

Such overlaps create problems for regulatory classifications, screening, diagnosis and treatment. Is the problem related to the gambling or gaming content? In this paper, we review the principal sources of overlap between the activity classes in terms of several dimensions: interactivity, monetisation, betting and wagering, types of outcomes, structural fidelity, context and centrality of content, and advertising.

We argue that gaming is principally defined by its interactivity, skill-based play, and contextual indicators of progression and success. In contrast, gambling is defined by betting and wagering mechanics, predominantly chance-determined outcomes, and monetisation features that involve risk and payout to the player. A checklist measure is provided, with practical examples, to examine activities according to features of design and function, which may inform guidelines for policy makers, researchers and treatment providers.

We suggest that, in some instances, using category-based nomenclature e. Gaming and gambling activities and industries are changing constantly. This has been largely driven by increasing technological capabilities that afford users a greater ability to access online activities with ease and affordability.

One consequence of the rapid advent and uptake of digital technologies has been the capacity for digital media content and functionality previously available only on a singular device to now span, influence, and to be shared across multiple devices and networks.

These games simulate many features and opportunities within gambling activities, such as card games and electronic gaming machines, while also providing the option for players to spend money in order to play. The aim of this review was to discuss the key features of gaming and gambling, and their overlap, to promote further critical discussion of the terminology employed across a diverse range of technology-based addictive behaviours.

However, such research provides only a limited analysis of the scope and types of activities, opportunities, and promotions associated with convergence.

Industry reports can provide a useful resource to fill this gap in the knowledge base. These types of convergence between gambling and gaming suggest that there is significant potential for new products to be developed and introduced in the market, and therefore a range of different activities for which vulnerable individuals may develop problematic habits of play. Similarly, some activities referred to as games may in fact have more in common with gambling.

It was recently acknowledged that, in developing the diagnostic guidelines for Internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5, there were limitations in terminology that prevented adequate encapsulation of those activities that involved gaming but were not gambling-related. However, despite these commonalities in features of design, gambling and gaming products are not technically or legally equivalent, raising concern that many activities could be misclassified Gainsbury, Hing et al.

Epidemiological studies that use loose terminology, for example, may mislabel or conflate gambling and gaming and therefore fail to accurately detect problematic behaviour, potentially leading to inaccurate estimations of prevalence rates of problems in the community.

This paper proposes a set of key features likely to be present in gambling and gaming activities. After reviewing the literature on gaming and gambling convergence, including legal and academic taxonomies, the authors of this paper independently suggested features that they felt best captured the common structural properties of gaming and gambling.

The element of financial payout was viewed as particularly important to the concept of gambling. We then considered these characteristics separately and in isolation of their contextual components e. This process may not have been comprehensive in capturing all possible features and activities, but represents a preliminary attempt to summarise known features and activities.

Table 1 presents all identified characteristics as a checklist, which may be used as a practical measure to evaluate digital activities. Additional examples are available upon request. A checklist for conceptualising gambling and gambling-like features in gaming activities.

This refers to the notion that the action and stimuli in the activity changes based on the input or behaviour of the player. An activity that involves active player involvement and interaction may be considered interactive, whereas non-interactive activities involve passive viewing of an activity or viewing others, wherein the participant does not directly influence the outcome.

All video games predominantly feature interactive elements, whereas this is not essential to gambling. A useful qualifier in considering these types is whether the currency is redeemable for money or an equivalent e. The legal definition of gambling in many contexts typically refers to monetary payout to the player. It was recognised that, in some activities, players are able to engage in betting using virtual currencies and items that do not have any recognised financial value. It was therefore important to distinguish the mechanics of betting from its outcome in order to appropriately identify forms of simulated gambling.

This refers to the outcome of player input and interactions, including betting and wagering mechanics. It was recognised that a typical requirement of gambling was financial outcomes. This category refers to the degree of realism and structural resemblance of an activity to an established gambling e. This category refers to the presence of linked advertising material, particularly in relation to gambling activities.

Some activities may not include features of gambling e. This category was included on the basis that some digital activities may feature links to recognised gambling, thereby enabling exposure to gambling and fluidity of transition between gaming and gambling. Three examples of the completed practical checklist are presented to highlight the similarities and differences in digital activities that feature aspects of gambling.

This activity is a social media platform-based simulator of a poker variant. The game is interactive, incorporates purchasable virtual currency in addition to its free virtual currency, and involves an element of skill comparable to casino card games i.

Players may be prompted to spend money on virtual currency. This process is slow and unregulated and offers no player protections.

The game developer has reported that chip-dumping will result in player bans. The game has a high structural fidelity to casino card games, and also includes a series of mini-games additional activities that can be engaged in concurrently. In summary, the game involves betting and chance but lacks a complete monetisation cycle i. Table 3 presents a completed checklist for the stand-alone console video game, Red Dead Redemption, which is a Western-themed violent action story-based game that offers a side activity involving gambling with other players.

All currency is virtual in nature and there is no ability to purchase additional currency. The game involves a realistic simulation of play, decision-making, and outcomes of standard poker card games. The primary incentive to play is to earn virtual currency that can be spent in other areas of the game, as well as the competitive element of rising up the leaderboards. The activity is interactive, incorporates purchasable virtual currency in addition to its free virtual currency, and involves chance-determined outcomes like an electronic gaming machine.

Players are prompted to spend money on currency. There is no direct option for players to cash out their winnings, however, it is possible for players to earn loyalty points through playing that can then be redeemed for hotel rooms or other gifts or items, including special discounts and free play real money casino promotions e. The game contains advertising for real world casinos. In summary, the game involves betting and chance and includes a loyalty point system to earn financial rewards.

The game is integrated with social media and therefore players receive notifications and advertising for casino products. This review highlights a number of common features in gambling and gambling activities, demonstrating that there are many possible permutations of digital activities. Some digital games feature betting mechanics with purchasable virtual currency but with no option for financial payout, within a realistic simulated gambling environment. Although the play experience in these activities may be considered prima facie to be psychologically similar in many respects to a form of legalised gambling, an activity may nevertheless fail to meet one of the essential legal criteria of gambling financial payout.

One task for regulators may be to determine when certain game rewards are considered equivalent to money due to online trading systems e. Looking forward, addiction researchers may need to consider certain hybrid or converging activities not only as types but also according to specific features of interest e.

DK was responsible for preparing the manuscript, with feedback from all authors. All authors developed and provided feedback on the typology in this paper. The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper. Funding sources: This work received financial support from the Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation via a tender for a gambling and gaming review. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

Journal List J Behav Addict v. J Behav Addict. Published online Dec Daniel L. Gainsbury , Paul H. Delfabbro , Nerilee Hing , and Brett Abarbanel. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep 5; Accepted Oct This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background and Aims Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as sharing many common features at a structural and aesthetic level. Methods In this paper, we review the principal sources of overlap between the activity classes in terms of several dimensions: interactivity, monetisation, betting and wagering, types of outcomes, structural fidelity, context and centrality of content, and advertising.

Results We argue that gaming is principally defined by its interactivity, skill-based play, and contextual indicators of progression and success. Discussion and conclusions We suggest that, in some instances, using category-based nomenclature e. Keywords: gambling, gaming, convergence, structural features, behavioural addictions.

Introduction Gaming and gambling activities and industries are changing constantly. Common Intersecting Features of Gambling and Gaming This paper proposes a set of key features likely to be present in gambling and gaming activities. Table 1. Open in a separate window. Interactivity This refers to the notion that the action and stimuli in the activity changes based on the input or behaviour of the player.

The nature of outcomes This refers to the outcome of player input and interactions, including betting and wagering mechanics. Structural fidelity This category refers to the degree of realism and structural resemblance of an activity to an established gambling e.

Advertising This category refers to the presence of linked advertising material, particularly in relation to gambling activities. Practical Use of the Checklist Three examples of the completed practical checklist are presented to highlight the similarities and differences in digital activities that feature aspects of gambling. Table 2. Conceptualising gambling-related content in the game, Zynga Poker.

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Re: gambling addiction passive games

Postby Tygomuro В» 20.06.2019

In one very important respect, there has never been a worse games to be a casual non-advantage gambler in the history of legalized gambling in the United States. Much addictino been written speculating why this is so. One task for regulators may be to determine when certain game rewards are considered equivalent to money due just click for source online trading systems e. This process may not top been comprehensive in capturing all possible features and activities, but represents a preliminary attempt to summarise see more free and activities. A useful qualifier in considering these types is whether the currency is redeemable for money or an finesse e.

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Re: gambling addiction passive games

Postby Disida В» 20.06.2019

Another prominent example of skill-based machines are the ubiquitous and loud pachinko machines in Japan. When somebody points to that We are far click here likely to believe, for example, that the Martingale system is valid. Some digital games feature betting mechanics with purchasable virtual currency but with no option for financial payout, within a realistic simulated gambling environment. In contrast, gambling is defined by betting and wagering mechanics, predominantly chance-determined outcomes, and monetisation features that involve risk and payout to the player.

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Re: gambling addiction passive games

Postby Visho В» 20.06.2019

This is probably not because tourists don't like video poker, but rather because video poker machines in locals casinos generally feature higher payback paytables; locals who play longer and more frequently demand better value on their gamble. This process may not have read article comprehensive in capturing all possible features and activities, but represents a preliminary attempt to summarise known features and activities. Higher-action, lower edge table games.

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Re: gambling addiction passive games

Postby Muktilar В» 20.06.2019

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Re: gambling addiction passive games

Postby Gardaran В» 20.06.2019

Table 3 presents a completed checklist for the stand-alone console video game, Red Dead Redemption, which is a Western-themed violent action story-based game that offers a side activity involving gambling with other players. To hang out. When somebody points to that Table 4.

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Re: gambling addiction passive games

Postby Shaktiramar В» 20.06.2019

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Re: gambling addiction passive games

Postby Taucage В» 20.06.2019

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Re: gambling addiction passive games

Postby Muzragore В» 20.06.2019

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Re: gambling addiction passive games

Postby Goltibar В» 20.06.2019

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Re: gambling addiction passive games

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Re: gambling addiction passive games

Postby Maurg В» 20.06.2019

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Re: gambling addiction passive games

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Postby Akisar В» 20.06.2019

The player must be compensated for skill. This category refers to the degree of realism and structural resemblance of an activity to an established gambling e. Keywords: gambling, gaming, convergence, structural features, behavioural addictions.

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