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Gambling cowboy majority definition

Postby Kanris В» 29.12.2019

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A cowboy is an animal herder who tends cattle on ranches in North America , traditionally on horseback, and often performs a multitude of other ranch-related tasks. The historic American cowboy of the late 19th century arose from the vaquero traditions of northern Mexico and became a figure of special significance and legend. In addition to ranch work, some cowboys work for or participate in rodeos. Cowgirls, first defined as such in the late 19th century, had a less-well documented historical role, but in the modern world work at identical tasks and have obtained considerable respect for their achievements.

The cowboy has deep historic roots tracing back to Spain and the earliest European settlers of the Americas. Over the centuries, differences in terrain and climate, and the influence of cattle-handling traditions from multiple cultures, created several distinct styles of equipment, clothing and animal handling.

As the ever-practical cowboy adapted to the modern world, his equipment and techniques also adapted, though many classic traditions are preserved. The English word cowboy has an origin from several earlier terms that referred to both age and to cattle or cattle-tending work. The English word cowboy was derived from vaquero , a Spanish word for an individual who managed cattle while mounted on horseback.

Vaquero was derived from vaca, meaning "cow," [3] which came from the Latin word vacca. It was used in Britain from to to describe young boys who tended the family or community cows. This word is very old in the English language, originating prior to the year By "cowboy" had developed its modern sense as an adult cattle handler of the American West.

Variations on the word appeared later. Today, "cowboy" is a term common throughout the west and particularly in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountains , "buckaroo" is used primarily in the Great Basin and California , and "cowpuncher" mostly in Texas and surrounding states. Equestrianism required skills and an investment in horses and equipment rarely available to or entrusted to a child, though in some cultures boys rode a donkey while going to and from pasture.

In antiquity , herding of sheep, cattle and goats was often the job of minors, and still is a task for young people in various third world cultures. Because of the time and physical ability needed to develop necessary skills, both historic and modern cowboys often began as an adolescent.

Historically, cowboys earned wages as soon as they developed sufficient skill to be hired often as young as 12 or If not crippled by injury, cowboys may handle cattle or horses for a lifetime. In the United States, a few women also took on the tasks of ranching and learned the necessary skills, though the "cowgirl" discussed below did not become widely recognized or acknowledged until the close of the 19th century.

On western ranches today, the working cowboy is usually an adult. Responsibility for herding cattle or other livestock is no longer considered suitable for children or early adolescents. However, both boys and girls growing up in a ranch environment often learn to ride horses and perform basic ranch skills as soon as they are physically able, usually under adult supervision. Such youths, by their late teens, are often given responsibilities for "cowboy" work on the ranch.

Claudius Smith , an outlaw identified with the Loyalist cause, was called the "Cow-boy of the Ramapos" due to his penchant for stealing oxen, cattle and horses from colonists and giving them to the British. These groups were made up of local farmhands who would ambush convoys and carry out raids on both sides. There were two separate groups: the "skinners" fought for the pro-independence side, while the "cowboys" supported the British.

In the Tombstone, Arizona area during the s, the term "cowboy" or "cow-boy" was used pejoratively to describe men who had been implicated in various crimes.

Cattlemen were generally called herders or ranchers. Corral and the resulting Earp Vendetta Ride. The origins of the cowboy tradition come from Spain , beginning with the hacienda system of medieval Spain.

This style of cattle ranching spread throughout much of the Iberian peninsula , and later was imported to the Americas. Both regions possessed a dry climate with sparse grass, thus large herds of cattle required vast amounts of land to obtain sufficient forage. The need to cover distances greater than a person on foot could manage gave rise to the development of the horseback-mounted vaquero.

During the 16th century, the Conquistadors and other Spanish settlers brought their cattle-raising traditions as well as both horses and domesticated cattle to the Americas , starting with their arrival in what today is Mexico and Florida. In turn, the land and people of the Americas also saw dramatic changes due to Spanish influence. The arrival of horses was particularly significant, as equines had been extinct in the Americas since the end of the prehistoric ice age.

However, horses quickly multiplied in America and became crucial to the success of the Spanish and later settlers from other nations. The earliest horses were originally of Andalusian , Barb and Arabian ancestry, [22] but a number of uniquely American horse breeds developed in North and South America through selective breeding and by natural selection of animals that escaped to the wild.

The Mustang and other colonial horse breeds are now called "wild," but in reality are feral horses —descendants of domesticated animals. While most hacendados ranch owners were ethnically Spanish criollos , [23] many early vaqueros were Native Americans trained to work for the Spanish missions in caring for the mission herds. From this beginning, vaqueros of mestizo heritage drove cattle from New Mexico and later Texas to Mexico City.

As English -speaking traders and settlers expanded westward , English and Spanish traditions, language and culture merged to some degree.

Before the Mexican—American War in , New England merchants who traveled by ship to California encountered both hacendados and vaqueros , trading manufactured goods for the hides and tallow produced from vast cattle ranches. American traders along what later became known as the Santa Fe Trail had similar contacts with vaquero life.

Starting with these early encounters, the lifestyle and language of the vaquero began a transformation which merged with English cultural traditions and produced what became known in American culture as the "cowboy".

The arrival of English-speaking settlers in Texas began in However, in slightly different ways, both areas contributed to the evolution of the iconic American cowboy. Particularly with the arrival of railroads and an increased demand for beef in the wake of the American Civil War , older traditions combined with the need to drive cattle from the ranches where they were raised to the nearest railheads , often hundreds of miles away.

By the s, the expansion of the cattle industry resulted in a need for additional open range. Thus many ranchers expanded into the northwest, where there were still large tracts of unsettled grassland. Texas cattle were herded north, into the Rocky Mountain west and the Dakotas. They caught the Mustangs that roamed the Great Plains and the San Joaquin Valley of California, and later in the Great Basin , from the 18th century to the early 20th century.

Large numbers of cattle lived in a semi- feral , or semi-wild state on the open range and were left to graze, mostly untended, for much of the year. In many cases, different ranchers formed "associations" and grazed their cattle together on the same range. In order to determine the ownership of individual animals, they were marked with a distinctive brand , applied with a hot iron, usually while the cattle were still young calves. In order to find young calves for branding, and to sort out mature animals intended for sale, ranchers would hold a roundup , usually in the spring.

Individuals who separated cattle from the herd required the highest level of skill and rode specially trained " cutting " horses, trained to follow the movements of cattle, capable of stopping and turning faster than other horses.

Occasionally it was also necessary to restrain older cattle for branding or other treatment. A large number of horses were needed for a roundup. Each cowboy would require three to four fresh horses in the course of a day's work. It was common practice in the west for young foals to be born of tame mares , but allowed to grow up "wild" in a semi-feral state on the open range. Both types were rounded up, and the mature animals tamed, a process called horse breaking , or " bronco -busting," var.

However, other cowboys became aware of the need to treat animals in a more humane fashion and modified their horse training methods, [39] often re-learning techniques used by the vaqueros, particularly those of the Californio tradition. Informal competition arose between cowboys seeking to test their cattle and horse-handling skills against one another, and thus, from the necessary tasks of the working cowboy, the sport of rodeo developed. Prior to the midth century, most ranchers primarily raised cattle for their own needs and to sell surplus meat and hides locally.

There was also a limited market for hides, horns, hooves, and tallow in assorted manufacturing processes. With the expansion of the meat packing industry , the demand for beef increased significantly. The first large-scale effort to drive cattle from Texas to the nearest railhead for shipment to Chicago occurred in , when many Texas ranchers banded together to drive their cattle to the closest point that railroad tracks reached, which at that time was in Sedalia, Missouri.

However, farmers in eastern Kansas, afraid that Longhorns would transmit cattle fever to local animals as well as trample crops, formed groups that threatened to beat or shoot cattlemen found on their lands. Therefore, the drive failed to reach the railroad, and the cattle herds were sold for low prices. It ran through present-day Oklahoma , which then was Indian Territory.

Later, other trails forked off to different railheads, including those at Dodge City and Wichita, Kansas. Cattle drives had to strike a balance between speed and the weight of the cattle. Usually they were taken shorter distances each day, allowed periods to rest and graze both at midday and at night. Such a pace meant that it would take as long as two months to travel from a home ranch to a railhead.

On average, a single herd of cattle on a drive numbered about 3, head. To herd the cattle, a crew of at least 10 cowboys was needed, with three horses per cowboy. Cowboys worked in shifts to watch the cattle 24 hours a day, herding them in the proper direction in the daytime and watching them at night to prevent stampedes and deter theft.

The crew also included a cook, who drove a chuck wagon , usually pulled by oxen , and a horse wrangler to take charge of the remuda , or herd of spare horses.

The wrangler on a cattle drive was often a very young cowboy or one of lower social status, but the cook was a particularly well-respected member of the crew, as not only was he in charge of the food, he also was in charge of medical supplies and had a working knowledge of practical medicine. Barbed wire , an innovation of the s, allowed cattle to be confined to designated areas to prevent overgrazing of the range.

In Texas and surrounding areas, increased population required ranchers to fence off their individual lands. Hence, the age of the open range was gone and large cattle drives were over. Meanwhile, ranches multiplied all over the developing West, keeping cowboy employment high, if still low-paid, but also somewhat more settled.

American cowboys were drawn from multiple sources. By the late s, following the American Civil War and the expansion of the cattle industry, former soldiers from both the Union and Confederacy came west, seeking work, as did large numbers of restless white men in general. Today, some Native Americans in the western United States own cattle and small ranches, and many are still employed as cowboys, especially on ranches located near Indian reservations.

The "Indian Cowboy" is also part of the rodeo circuit. Because cowboys ranked low in the social structure of the period, there are no firm figures on the actual proportion of various races. One writer states that cowboys were " Regardless of ethnicity, most cowboys came from lower social classes and the pay was poor.

The average cowboy earned approximately a dollar a day, plus food, and, when near the home ranch, a bed in the bunkhouse , usually a barracks -like building with a single open room.

Over time, the cowboys of the American West developed a personal culture of their own, a blend of frontier and Victorian values that even retained vestiges of chivalry. Such hazardous work in isolated conditions also bred a tradition of self-dependence and individualism , with great value put on personal honesty, exemplified in songs and poetry.

However, some men were also drawn to the frontier because they were attracted to men. Though anti-sodomy laws were common in the Old West, they often were only selectively enforced.

The traditions of the working cowboy were further etched into the minds of the general public with the development of Wild West Shows in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which showcased and romanticized the life of both cowboys and Native Americans.

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Re: gambling cowboy majority definition

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Re: gambling cowboy majority definition

Postby Mulabar В» 29.12.2019

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