Emotion-based learning: insights from the Iowa Gambling Task

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Neurological Soft Signs in Individuals with Pathological Gambling

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Postby Fenos В» 03.02.2020

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A number of psychological variables have been investigated as potentially important in understanding emotion-based learning. This paper reviews the extent to which humans are explicitly aware of how we make such decisions; the biasing influence of pre-existing emotional labels; and the extent to which emotion-based systems are anatomically and functionally independent of episodic memory.

However, in spite of these domains of preservation, such individuals often displayed difficulties in learning from past mistakes, with real life manifestations such as entering repeatedly into inappropriate relationships, and unsuitable business agreements. Such decisions may immediately seem rewarding, but typically prove to be counter-productive in the long run, often leading to career termination and financial losses Damasio et al.

Notably, such individuals display failures in using emotional feedback from previous situations i. Measuring these decision-making failures in the real-world is challenging, both ethically and methodologically. The Iowa Gambling Task IGT was developed as a simple neuropsychological tool to tap into such deficits in emotional-processing, which might be associated with complex decision-making difficulties, as observed in individuals with frontal lobe lesions Rolls et al.

A key element of the recent complex decision-making literature has been the role of emotion Bechara et al. The role of emotion in such decision-making is supported by studies of patients with VM frontal, amygdala, and insular lesions e.

The IGT Bechara et al. The IGT has been extraordinarily influential, with Bechara et al. The spread of influence is also remarkably diverse, spanning a range of theoretical, and clinical papers in psychiatry e. A number of psychological variables have been investigated as potentially important in understanding the nature of these EBL systems. The most prominent of these are i the extent to which we are explicitly aware of the basis of such decisions; ii the biasing influence of pre-existing emotional labels in complex decision making; and iii the extent to which EBL systems are anatomically and functionally independent of episodic memory systems.

Each of these issues are briefly reviewed in this article. An important element in our understanding of the nature of emotion-based-learning, and the factors that drive learning on the IGT in particular, is the question of conscious awareness.

Bechara et al. Notably, after encountering losses on specific decks, neurotypical participants developed pre-decision anticipatory skin conductance responses SCRs. However, Bechara et al. Even more paradoxically, they reported that some neurotypical participants did not reach the conceptual period in that they did not describe an awareness regarding which decks were good and which were bad, yet they still made increasingly advantageous choices over time Bechara et al.

In sum, they appear to suggest that conscious awareness on the task, and good performance are unrelated. This proposition has received some experimental support Bechara et al.

Maia and McClelland probed the general awareness of task contingencies, without asking participants to specify the cognitive details underlying their understanding. Importantly, most participants who made advantageous choices, and thus showed preference for one or more of the decks, also demonstrated conscious feelings about the decks.

Indeed, by the end of Block 1 i. Maia and McClelland therefore claimed that participants playing the IGT did have access to explicit awareness about the contingencies of the game.

They argued that this resulted from the self-paced nature of the task, which allowed ample time for deliberative reasoning, and also that the outcomes of choices were presented in a clear numerical form, which aided explicit tracking and learning of the incentive nature of each deck at least to some degree — though see Peatfield et al.

Thus, Maia and McClelland posited a degree conscious awareness of the task in participants, albeit of a different form of awareness to that proposed by Bechara et al.

Indeed, this difference was captured by asking participants probing questions about the task, rather than by assessing notoriously difficult-to-verbalize and general feeling. Importantly, Maia and McClelland suggests multiple source of information might possibly guide the choice during complex-decisions.

Further, empirical support on the question of awareness, comes from the work of Bowman et al. Bowman et al. Other studies e. However, Turnbull et al.

Thus, it appears that explicit emotion-mediated -knowledge of incentive values of choice is available much earlier than originally claimed by Bechara et al.

This form of awareness is also a type substantially different in quality to that encountered during explicit cognitive approaches to decision making Gilhooly and Murphy, Kahneman et al. Stanovich and West have proposed a similar dichotomy e. One approach intuition; or System 1 generates an overall and apparently imprecise general impression of objects or situations, through an involuntary process sometimes described as natural assessment Tversky and Kahneman, This phenomenon emerges without intention or effort, and could not they argued be verbalized explicitly.

In contrast, the reasoning pathway System 2 is involved when more formal judgements are made, even if these are not overtly expressed Kahneman, ; for more on this in relation to the IGT see Bechara, ; Cella et al. However, such reason-based decisions were always intentional and explicit. We have argued that such EBL systems may pre-empt or guide reason-based choice, when faced with settings involving combinations of a complex problem space; high levels of uncertainty and ambiguity; and laden or infused with affect.

Interestingly, this literature potentially links to emotion-based systems of the sort found in psychiatric disorders Evans et al. These affectively laden biases may perhaps appear without conscious awareness, and lack explicit understanding, even when producing successful outcomes Damasio, , pp.

The IGT is usually regarded as a good simulation of the complexity of real-world decision-making, given that it involves exploratory decisions under both risk and ambiguity e. Although other tasks may provide a better psychological dissection of the decision-making processes e. What then of the fact that humans are often biased or predisposed — toward objects, even before they first encounter them?

And how does this bias shift over time? Notably, the IGT involves an intrinsic affective shift, where initially learned associations require reversal for adaptive behavior on the task Fellows and Farah, Overcoming such biases clearly requires reversal of an affectively laden association. Notably, such social biases are understood to be both common and well-established, with the potential to linger outside full awareness Devine, ; Amodio et al.

Indeed, the notion that most objects rapidly and automatically evoke affective states is now well-established e. Therefore, an ecologically valid starting point for the IGT would be a set of objects which are affectively laden, rather than neutral. A relevant distinction, and one often stressed by the social cognition literature, is that affect can be sourced from an evaluation of the features of the target itself integral affect , or influenced by the background mood state or another unrelated source incidental affect , Pham et al.

Thus, integral affect may result from actual, perceived, or even imaginary characteristics of the decision targets — i. In contrast, incidental affect is sourced from temporary mood states, trait affective states e.

How might these sources of affect influence complex decision-making? It is likely they are incorporated into an online affective state, which is readily placed to infuse and bias choices Damasio, ; Finucane et al. Here, the literature is patchy in its coverage. Indeed, incidental affect appears to have important impacts on IGT performance Schmitt et al. However, the primacy e. Surprisingly, only a few studies Hinson et al.

Notably, real-world social behavior involves encountering agents and objects that develop, and ultimately come to possess , ambiguous and ambivalent characteristics e.

Thus, an appraisal of a well-known individual e. Ecologically rich paradigms such as the IGT have only recently been employed to examine the impact of affective biases in complex and dynamic decision-making Hinson et al. The following section presents an overview of this research. Given the proposed primacy of emotion-based processes Bechara et al.

While each study uses different variants of the IGT, and a range of affective biases, the data are broadly consistent — demonstrating that pre-existing bias readily impacts complex decision-making Hinson et al. Using a three-deck variant of the IGT, Hinson et al. As one might predict, incongruent affective bias impaired performance, while congruent bias enhanced decision-making.

Thus, the use of stable emotional landmarks from the outset of the task readily biased IGT-style decision-making.

The SCR data collected during the experiments Hinson et al. Incongruent affective bias was found to hinder the development of these physiological markers — with little discrimination in differential SCRs across the three decks.

However, in the congruent condition, these anticipatory markers appeared to selectively distinguish between bad deck choices from both good and neutral options. However, in this study the somatic signals produced no causal influence on decision behavior, merely acting as one index of adaptive decision-making Hinson et al. Building on these findings, Davies and Turnbull investigated features of the classic Gambling Task potentially influenced by affective bias — expanding the topic to include features such as sensitivity to punishment cues Dalgleish et al.

The Davies and Turnbull tasks introduced affective bias using visual stimuli that were either non-social International Affective Picture System; Lang et al.

To control for individual variation, the stimuli were also customized for each participant, by pre-evaluation. As in the Hinson et al. Importantly, affective bias altered selection in both congruent and incongruent conditions; especially both experiments demonstrated that affective labels impaired selection behavior specifically under incongruent conditions. Additionally, the study experiment 2 also showed a clear influence of affective bias on subjective ratings of task objects over the task.

This sparks the question of how such decision-making is changed. Congruency did not influence shifts from the frequently punishing decks, nor did it alter preferences for decks with lower loss frequency. Also, decoupling subjective evaluation data to absolute deck ratings showed that weighting of deck attitudes were unaltered by the congruency manipulation.

However, incongruent association selectively modulated evaluation of the disadvantageous decks. Indeed, consolidating the importance of awareness of the affective nature of the punishing bad decks, subjective awareness of their incentive nature was strongly associated with adaptive task performance cf. Maia and McClelland, ; Bowman et al. Such dissociation between deck ratings suggests that deck attitudes in general were not influenced by affective bias.

Instead it appears that sensitivity to accumulating losses is a major driving force in IGT decision-making Christakou et al. Dunn et al. Both of the above studies i. Here, the ability to make an advantageous choice increases when the emotional context is congruent with the feedback, while this is impaired in an incongruent condition. Indeed, facial emotion appears to carry intrinsic incentive value Shore and Heerey, ; therefore presenting bias during the feedback phase should modulate the net decision feedback.

Incongruent affective bias again leads to a robust impact on IGT decision-making cf. Hinson et al. This would be consistent with the observations made by Davies and Turnbull , and further imply that affective bias within IGT variants disrupts adaptive shifting of decision behavior in the face of changing contingencies i. A notable inference derived from this study surrounds the use of additional supporting feedback the IGT and other decision-making paradigms often present additional feedback with affective value e.

Such feedback probably consolidates reinforcement of primary incentive feedback, potentially complicating task interpretation Shore and Heerey,

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Postby Tazuru В» 03.02.2020

Separable neural components in the processing of black and white faces. However, in this study the somatic signals produced no causal influence on decision behavior, merely acting as one index of adaptive decision-making Hinson et al. Decision-making impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder as measured rest the Iowa Gambling Task. Search Menu.

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Postby Toran В» 03.02.2020

Cardiovasc Pathol 10 3 : —5. Of note, studies with clinical populations have tended to find no relationship between IGT performance and performance on agterial Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Bechara et al. Using cognitive models to map relations between neuropsychological disorders and human decision making deficits. Neural correlates of adaptive decision making for risky gains and losses.

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In contrast to hard neurological signs localizable to a specific brain site, their soft counterparts are attributed to wider brain regions and functionally connected neuroanatomical systems, involved in integrative neurological functions such as sensory perception, coordination and motor sequencing [32][33]. J Nerv Ment Dis 2 : 84—9. Neuroanatomical correlates of pleasant and unpleasant emotion. Arherial differences in childhood amnesia. Http://luckyrow.club/poker-games/poker-games-rising-games-1.php effects of education on the Iowa Gambing Task.

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Top games objects 2017 effects of insula and ventromedial prefrontal aarterial lesions on risky decision-making. Observations on working psychoanalytically with a profoundly amnestic patient. In contrast, the reasoning pathway System 2 is involved when more formal judgements are made, even if these are not overtly expressed Kahneman, ; for more on this in relation to the IGT see Bechara, ; Cella et al. Increased neurological soft signs NSSs have been found in a number of neuropsychiatric syndromes, including gzmbling addiction.

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Indeed, facial emotion top games gurgle water to carry intrinsic incentive value Shore and Heerey, ; therefore presenting bias gambling the feedback phase should modulate the net decision feedback. Anticipation of plays from risky decks was related to arterial activation in the superior anterior cingulate and disk frontal gyrus. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 19 3 : — Neurological soft signs have been definition in a growing number of test syndromes including dffinition disorders [34] — cowboyobsessive-compulsive gamblling OCD pictures — [39]post-traumatic stress disorder [26][27]impulse control disorder [40]gambliing [32][34][41]and gambling deficit hyperactivity disorder [42]. Incongruent affective bias was found to hinder the development of these physiological markers — with little discrimination in differential SCRs across the three decks.

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Thinking about the national future of decision-making research, studies should publish detailed results including statistical findings and group means whenever possible. Such dissociation between deck ratings suggests that deck attitudes in general were not influenced by affective bias. Do individual differences in Iowa Gambling Task performance predict adaptive decision making for risky gains and losses? Building on these findings, Davies and Turnbull investigated features of the classic Gambling Task potentially influenced by affective bias — expanding the topic to include features such as sensitivity to punishment cues Dalgleish et al.

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